Hoekstra, Rutger

Senior Consultant

Selected NON-UNU Publications
  • Rutger Hoekstra

    Research Interests

    • Beyond GDP
    • Inequality
    • Sustainability
    • Wellbeing


    • Phd, Environmental Economics, Free University Amsterdam (2003)
    • MSc, Environmental Economics, Wageningen University (1998)


    • 2019 – Fellow of the Wellbeing Economy Alliance (WEAll) and Our New Economy (ONE)
    • 2019 – Member of the ISWGNA (Intersecretariat Working Group on National Accounts) group which is responsible for the revision of the System of National Accounts (SNA)
    • 2009-2014 – Chair of the Joint UN-ECE/OECD/Eurostat Task Force on Measuring Sustainable Development
    • 2015-2016 – Expert Member on the Dutch parliamentary commission on broader measures of welfare
    • 2015-2016 – Member of the Scientific Program Committee of the Conference of the International Input-output Association
    • 2000 to date – Reviewer for many environmental-economic scientific journals​

    Biographical Statement

    Rutger Hoekstra has nearly 20 years of experience working on the quantification of value, well-being and sustainability from an academic, government, statistical and business perspectives. He is the author of Replacing GDP by 2030, which is published by Cambridge University Press.

    Rutger has worked with/for the United Nations, OECD, World Bank, European Commission, European Central Bank, various ministries, NGO’s and large companies to create metrics and policies that prioritize well-being, sustainability and equity. He was the co-chair of the UN-ECE/OECD/Eurostat Task Force which developed the Conference of European Statisticians Recommendations on Measuring Sustainable Development. He has also worked for the Dutch Parliament as an expert for the Commission for Broader Measures of Well-being (Dutch: Commissie Brede Welvaart).

    Rutger has lectured at many universities and published numerous publications on sustainable development, natural and human capital, globalization, circular economy, input-output analysis, decomposition analysis and big data applications. He was also Scientific Director of True Value at KPMG-Sustainability where he helped corporate clients measure their social and environmental impacts.

  • Articles

    • Hoekstra, R., Michel, B. and Suh, S., 2016. The emission cost of international sourcing: using structural decomposition analysis to calculate the contribution of international sourcing to CO2-emission growth. Economic Systems Research. Vol. 28, No. 2, 2 April 2016, pp. 151-167.
    • Kulig, A., H. Kolfoort and R. Hoekstra, 2010. The case for the hybrid capital approach for the measurement of the welfare and sustainability. Ecological Indicators 10 (2010), pp. 118–128.
    • Hoekstra, R. and J.C.J.M. van den Bergh, 2006. Constructing physical input-output tables for environmental modeling and accounting: framework and illustrations. Ecological Economics 59, pp. 375-393.
    • Hoekstra, R. and J.C.J.M van den Bergh, 2003. Comparing structural and index decomposition analysis. Energy Economics 25, pp. 39-64.


    • Hoekstra, R., forthcoming. Replacing GDP by 2030: Towards a common language for the well-being and sustainability community. Cambridge University Press. Reviews: http://metricsforthefuture.com/press/
    • Hoekstra, R., 2005. Economic growth, material flows and the environment: New applications of structural decomposition analysis and physical input-output tables, Edward Elgar Publishers. Review: see Considine (2008), Journal of Industrial Ecology, Vol 12, No 1, pp. 130-131.)


    • Hoekstra, R., 2020. Measuring the Wellbeing Economy: How to Go Beyond-GDP. Policy Brief for the Wellbeing Economy Alliance. https://wellbeingeconomy.org/wp-content/uploads/WeAll-BRIEFINGS-Measuring-the-Wellbeing-economy-v6.pdf
    • United Nations Statistical Division, 2020. How Natural Capital Accounting contributes to integrated policies for sustainability. Paper commissioned by the UNSD to promote the policy use of the System of Environmental-Economic Accounts.
    • United Nations, 2014. Conference of European Statisticians Recommendations on Measuring Sustainable Development. Report prepared by the Joint UNECE/Eurostat/OECD Task Force for Measuring Sustainable Development.


    • Hoekstra, R., 2003. Structural change of the physical economy: Decomposition analysis of physical and hybrid-unit input-output tables, Tinbergen Institute Research Series, No 315, Thela Thesis Academic Publishing Services, Amsterdam.